Conclusions

What can be said about the sunlines displayed on the website? How well do they match with what is known from the available sources? Here I will display conclusions I draw from the results. They are based on all of the material I have access to, not just what is presented so far.

Could it be true that Lundskullen is an Old Norse Calendar

When you look at all the results from Lundskullen and also from other burial sites, it is striking how well the sun lines pointing out important calendar days in the old norse calendar. But what do the results show when one puts them in charts?

Below are the results when it is assumed that the spring and autumn equinoxes was on the day that day and night are of equal length. That is the date that is prior to the current vernal equinox and the day after today’s autumnal equinox. It is also assumed that the winter and summer solstices were on the same days that still applies today. The chart compares the outcomes for stones that have the right shape, with stones that are not properly formed. The criteria for the stones shapes, see Calculations.

The results are unambiguous: For all burial sites together 83 % of of the sun lines with the right shape hits the right days in the old norse calendar. Lundskullen is a complete norse calendar!

Placements of the calendar days

  • In Late Iron Age the equinoxes fall on the day before in spring and the day after in the autumn as compared to the definition used today. It is on these days the day and night are of equal length.
  • The dates for both winter and summer solstice are in good agreement with the current date for these days when compared to dates shown by the sun lines for the blot and days of new quarter in winter and summer. Some uncertainty exists due to the daily change of the sun’s path is much smaller in winter and summer compared to the autumn and spring. This means that the error can be possibly one day while an error of two days or more are less likely.
  • The new quarter begins exactly 28 days after the winter and summer solstices and the autumn and spring equinoxes.
  • The blot took place at full moon or new moon at the earliest a half moon cycle and not later than one and a half moon cycles after the winter and summer solstices and the spring and winter equinoxes.

Statistics

The spring and autumn equinox was on the day when day and night were of equal length shown are in the chart below. It shows the outcome of the entire material examined, 42 sun lines for vernal and autumnal equinoxes and the associated days for blot and new quarters. If you add up the spring and autumn for all the burial sites, the result is 81 % of the days of “refraction equinox.”

The summer and winter solstice were both on the same day as it is today. It is shown with convincing clarity in the chart below, based on the outcomes from 16 sun lines of the summer and winter blot and days of new quarter.

A consequence of the results shown in the two graphs is that the days of the blot and of the new quarter are located exactly where they should be according to the assumptions made. The day of the blot is earliest half a moon cycle (= 14.77 days) and latest one day before one and a half moon cycle (= 43.30 days) after the vernal and autumnal equinoxes and the winter and summer solstices. The days of the new quarter is 28 days after the vernal and autumnal equinoxes and the winter and summer solstices.